• Auroras, also known as Polar lights, predominantly appear in high-latitude regions, namely the Arctic and Antarctic.


  • Two main types of auroras exist: aurora borealis (northern lights) and aurora australis (southern lights).


  • They are most commonly witnessed at high northern and southern latitudes, less frequently at mid-latitudes, and are seldom visible near the the equator.


  • While their typical hue is a milky greenish colour, auroras can display a mesmerizing spectrum of colors such as red, blue, violet, pink, and white, accompanied by ever-changing shapes.


  • These celestial displays are a manifestation of Earth’s electrical connection to the Sun, fuelled by electrically charged particles trapped in Earth’s magnetic field.


  •  The core of auroral phenomena lies in collisions between fast-moving electrons from space and oxygen and nitrogen molecules in Earth’s upper atmosphere.


  •  These collisions excite the oxygen and nitrogen atoms and molecules, leading to the emission of photons, creating the radiant display we witness.


  • Auroras originate at altitudes ranging from 100 to over 400 kilometres above Earth’s surface.


  • The diverse colors and shapes of auroras result from the type of gas (oxygen or nitrogen) being excited by electrons, as well as the energy levels of these electrons during their collisions.


  • High-energy electrons stimulate oxygen to emit green light, while lower- energy electrons produce red light, and nitrogen primarily emits blue light.


  • Combinations of these colors can yield purples, pinks, and whites, and specialized satellites can detect the ultraviolet light emitted by oxygen and nitrogen.


  • Beyond their beauty, auroras can impact communication, radio, and power lines due to electrical disturbances they induce.


  • The Sun’s energy, in the form of solar wind, is the driving force behind this captivating natural spectacle.