CSIP: PRELIMS BOOSTER SERIES -218 ENVIRONMENT
Hydrogen fuel cells produce electricity by combining hydrogen and oxygen atoms. The hydrogen reacts with oxygen across an electrochemical cell— similar to a battery—to produce electricity, water, and small amounts of heat.
H2 + O2 à H20 + Electricity
STEAM METHANE REFORMATION
Hydrogen is produced by treating hydrocarbons (eg: methane) with steam under high temperature and pressure.
Electrolysis is a process that splits hydrogen from water using an electric current.
H20 à H2 + 02
- Photolytic processes that use solar energy to split water into hydrogen and oxygen.
- Biological processes that use microbes, such as bacteria and microalgae, to produce hydrogen through biological reactions.
- Thermochemical processes to convert biomass into gas or liquids and to separate the hydrogen.
ADVANTAGES OF HYDROGEN FUELS OVER CONVENTIONAL FUELS
- Renewable source of energy
- Clean source of energy
- Hydrogen fuel cells do not produce noise pollution in combustion engines
- High energy density when compared to other sources and hydrogen combustion engines have high energy efficiency. (40% when compared to petrol 20%)The chemical element releases 142 megajoules (MJ) of energy per kilogram, compared to petrol which releases just 46 MJ per kilogram.
- Green hydrogen as a potential solution to decarbonise sectors such as refinery, ammonia, methanol, iron and steel and heavy-duty trucking.
- 96% of the hydrogen used is grey hydrogen which is polluting.
- Gaseous and combustible nature makes it difficult to handle and transport to refuelling stations. It will require installation of special pipeline infrastructure.
- Hydrogen engine less energy efficient when compared to battery powered electric engines (40% vs 80%).
INDIAN GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES
National Hydrogen Mission launched in 2021
with the intended objectives of: Making India a leading producer and supplier of Green Hydrogen in the world. Creation of export opportunities for Green Hydrogen and its derivatives.