CONTEXT: M S Swamithanam the Father of Green Revolution passes away

The Green Revolution (a term used for rapid increases in wheat and rice yields in developing countries brought about by improved varieties combined with the expanded use of fertilizers and other chemical inputs) has had a dramatic impact on incomes and food supplies in many developing countries.

The term green revolution was first used by William Gaud and Norman Borlaug is the Father
of the Green Revolution.

In the year 1965, the government of India launched the Green Revolution with the help of a geneticist, now known as the father of the Green revolution (India) M.S. Swaminathan. The movement of the green revolution was a great success and changed the country’s status from a food-deficient economy to one of the world’s leading agricultural nations. It started in 1967 and lasted till 1978.

Aspects of Green Revolution in India
• High Yielding Varieties (HYV)
• Mechanization of Agriculture
• Use of Chemical Fertilizers and Pesticides
• Irrigation

Green Revolution (Features)
1. Introduced High Yielding Variety seeds in Indian agriculture.
2. The HYV seeds were highly effective in regions that had rich irrigation facilities and were more successful with the wheat crop. Therefore, the Green Revolution at first focused on states with better infrastructure such as Tamil Nadu and Punjab.
3. During the second phase, the high yielding variety seeds were given to other states, and crops other than wheat were also included in the plan.
4. The most important requirement for the high yielding variety seeds is proper irrigation. Crops grown from HYV seeds need good amounts of water supply and farmers could not depend on monsoon. Hence, the Green Revolution has improved the irrigation systems around farms in India.
5. Commercial crops and cash crops such as cotton, jute, oilseeds, etc were not a part of the plan. Green revolution in India mainly emphasized food grains such as wheat and rice.

6. To enhance farm productivity green revolution increased the availability and use of fertilizers, weedicides, and pesticides to reduce any damage or loss to the crops.
7. It also helped in promoting commercial farming in the country with the introduction of machinery and technology like harvesters, drills, tractors, etc.