Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanoparticles known as “artificial atoms” due to their unique optical and electronic properties, resulting from their minute size. The concept of QDs was initially proposed in the 1970s and realized through successful synthesis in the early 1980s. Various semiconductor materials, including cadmium selenide, cadmium sulfide, and indium arsenide, can be employed to create QDs, each possessing distinctive characteristics.

One remarkable aspect of QDs is their tunable emission properties. Researchers can precisely adjust the wavelength of light emitted or absorbed by controlling the QD size. This flexibility enables emission spanning the visible spectrum, extending into the infrared and ultraviolet ranges, offering a broad range of colors for diverse applications. Smaller QDs emit higher-energy waves, producing blue light, while larger ones emit lower-energy waves, generating red light, with intermediate sizes yielding intermediate colors.

In terms of applications, QDs play a pivotal role in several fields:

1. Displays: QDs are integral in display technology, enhancing color quality and efficiency in TVs, monitors, and electronic devices.

2. Photovoltaics: QDs are employed in solar cells to augment light absorption and energy conversion efficiency, potentially revolutionizing solar energy capture.

3. Biomedical Applications: The small size of QDs allows for versatile biomedical applications, including medical imaging, biosensors, targeted drug delivery, and more, as they can navigate throughout the body